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Requests Compatibility Guide

HTTPX aims to be broadly compatible with the requests API, although there are a few design differences in places.

This documentation outlines places where the API differs...


Unlike requests, HTTPX does not follow redirects by default.

We differ in behaviour here because auto-redirects can easily mask unnecessary network calls being made.

You can still enable behaviour to automatically follow redirects, but you need to do so explicitly...

response = client.get(url, follow_redirects=True)

Or else instantiate a client, with redirect following enabled by default...

client = httpx.Client(follow_redirects=True)

Client instances

The HTTPX equivalent of requests.Session is httpx.Client.

session = requests.Session(**kwargs)

is generally equivalent to

client = httpx.Client(**kwargs)

Request URLs

Accessing response.url will return a URL instance, rather than a string.

Use str(response.url) if you need a string instance.

Determining the next redirect request

The requests library exposes an attribute, which can be used to obtain the next redirect request.

session = requests.Session()
request = requests.Request("GET", ...).prepare()
while request is not None:
    response = session.send(request, allow_redirects=False)
    request =

In HTTPX, this attribute is instead named response.next_request. For example:

client = httpx.Client()
request = client.build_request("GET", ...)
while request is not None:
    response = client.send(request)
    request = response.next_request

Request Content

For uploading raw text or binary content we prefer to use a content parameter, in order to better separate this usage from the case of uploading form data.

For example, using content=... to upload raw content:

# Uploading text, bytes, or a bytes iterator., content=b"Hello, world")

And using data=... to send form data:

# Uploading form data., data={"message": "Hello, world"})

Using the data=<text/byte content> will raise a deprecation warning, and is expected to be fully removed with the HTTPX 1.0 release.

Upload files

HTTPX strictly enforces that upload files must be opened in binary mode, in order to avoid character encoding issues that can result from attempting to upload files opened in text mode.

Content encoding

HTTPX uses utf-8 for encoding str request bodies. For example, when using content=<str> the request body will be encoded to utf-8 before being sent over the wire. This differs from Requests which uses latin1. If you need an explicit encoding, pass encoded bytes explicitly, e.g. content=<str>.encode("latin1"). For response bodies, assuming the server didn't send an explicit encoding then HTTPX will do its best to figure out an appropriate encoding. HTTPX makes a guess at the encoding to use for decoding the response using charset_normalizer. Fallback to that or any content with less than 32 octets will be decoded using utf-8 with the error="replace" decoder strategy.


If using a client instance, then cookies should always be set on the client rather than on a per-request basis.

This usage is supported:

client = httpx.Client(cookies=...)

This usage is not supported:

client = httpx.Client(), cookies=...)

We prefer enforcing a stricter API here because it provides clearer expectations around cookie persistence, particularly when redirects occur.

Status Codes

In our documentation we prefer the uppercased versions, such as codes.NOT_FOUND, but also provide lower-cased versions for API compatibility with requests.

Requests includes various synonyms for status codes that HTTPX does not support.

Streaming responses

HTTPX provides a .stream() interface rather than using stream=True. This ensures that streaming responses are always properly closed outside of the stream block, and makes it visually clearer at which points streaming I/O APIs may be used with a response.

For example:

with"GET", "") as response:

Within a stream() block request data is made available with:

  • .iter_bytes() - Instead of response.iter_content()
  • .iter_text() - Instead of response.iter_content(decode_unicode=True)
  • .iter_lines() - Corresponding to response.iter_lines()
  • .iter_raw() - Use this instead of response.raw
  • .read() - Read the entire response body, making request.text and response.content available.


HTTPX defaults to including reasonable timeouts for all network operations, while Requests has no timeouts by default.

To get the same behavior as Requests, set the timeout parameter to None:

httpx.get('', timeout=None)

Proxy keys

HTTPX uses the mounts argument for HTTP proxying and transport routing. It can do much more than proxies and allows you to configure more than just the proxy route. For more detailed documentation, see Mounting Transports.

When using httpx.Client(mounts={...}) to map to a selection of different transports, we use full URL schemes, such as mounts={"http://": ..., "https://": ...}.

This is different to the requests usage of proxies={"http": ..., "https": ...}.

This change is for better consistency with more complex mappings, that might also include domain names, such as mounts={"all://": ..., httpx.HTTPTransport(proxy="all://": None}) which maps all requests onto a proxy, except for requests to "" which have an explicit exclusion.

Also note that requests.Session.request(...) allows a proxies=... parameter, whereas httpx.Client.request(...) does not allow mounts=....

SSL configuration

When using a Client instance, the trust_env, verify, and cert arguments should always be passed on client instantiation, rather than passed to the request method.

If you need more than one different SSL configuration, you should use different client instances for each SSL configuration.

Requests supports REQUESTS_CA_BUNDLE which points to either a file or a directory. HTTPX supports the SSL_CERT_FILE (for a file) and SSL_CERT_DIR (for a directory) OpenSSL variables instead.

Request body on HTTP methods

The HTTP GET, DELETE, HEAD, and OPTIONS methods are specified as not supporting a request body. To stay in line with this, the .get, .delete, .head and .options functions do not support content, files, data, or json arguments.

If you really do need to send request data using these http methods you should use the generic .request function instead.

  content=b'A request body on a DELETE request.'

Checking for success and failure responses

We don't support response.is_ok since the naming is ambiguous there, and might incorrectly imply an equivalence to response.status_code == codes.OK. Instead we provide the response.is_success property, which can be used to check for a 2xx response.

Request instantiation

There is no notion of prepared requests in HTTPX. If you need to customize request instantiation, see Request instances.

Besides, httpx.Request() does not support the auth, timeout, follow_redirects, mounts, verify and cert parameters. However these are available in httpx.request, httpx.get, etc., as well as on Client instances.


If you need to mock HTTPX the same way that test utilities like responses and requests-mock does for requests, see RESPX.


If you use cachecontrol or requests-cache to add HTTP Caching support to the requests library, you can use Hishel for HTTPX.

Networking layer

requests defers most of its HTTP networking code to the excellent urllib3 library.

On the other hand, HTTPX uses HTTPCore as its core HTTP networking layer, which is a different project than urllib3.

Query Parameters

requests omits params whose values are None (e.g. requests.get(..., params={"foo": None})). This is not supported by HTTPX.

For both query params (params=) and form data (data=), requests supports sending a list of tuples (e.g. requests.get(..., params=[('key1', 'value1'), ('key1', 'value2')])). This is not supported by HTTPX. Instead, use a dictionary with lists as values. E.g.: httpx.get(..., params={'key1': ['value1', 'value2']}) or with form data:, data={'key1': ['value1', 'value2']}).

Event Hooks

requests allows event hooks to mutate Request and Response objects. See examples given in the documentation for requests.

In HTTPX, event hooks may access properties of requests and responses, but event hook callbacks cannot mutate the original request/response.

If you are looking for more control, consider checking out Custom Transports.